Rolf Apweiler

is a Team Leader and Senior Scientist at the European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK. He studied Biology with a focus on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in Heidelberg, Germany and Bath, UK, and worked in drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry. He became involved in the Swiss-Prot project in 1987. He received his PhD in 1994 from the Center for Molecular Biology, University of Heidelberg, Germany and joined the European Bioinformatics Institute the same year. Dr Apweiler has coordinated the Swiss-Prot group at the European Bioinformatics Institute since 1994. He also started, among other projects, the TrEMBL protein database, the Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites (InterPro), Gene Ontoloy Annotation (GOA) and the Proteome Analysis database projects. These projects have organised large amounts of protein information, provided comparisons between proteomes and aim to produce dynamic, controlled vocabularies that can be applied to all organisms. In addition, Dr Apweiler has been in charge of the EMBL nucleotide sequence database since 2001. Rolf Apweiler has also a long-standing interest in data standards and nomenclature as exemplified in his engagement in the IUBMB Nomenclature Committee and in the HUPO Proteomics Standards Initiative.




Richard Cammack

is a Professor of Biochemistry at King's College, University of London. He is the Chairman of the Nomenclature committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) and Joint commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN), and also editor-in-Chief of the second edition of the Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.


Athel Cornish-Bowden

carried out his undergraduate and post-graduate studies at Oxford, obtaining his D.Phil. with Jeremy R. Knowles in 1967 on the basis of studies of pepsin catalysis in the Dyson Perrins Laboratory. After spending three post-doctoral years in the laboratory of Daniel E. Koshland, Jr., at the University of California, Berkeley, he moved to a position as a Lecturer, and subsequently Senior Lecturer, in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Birmingham, where he remained for 16 years. Since 1987 he has been Directeur de Recherche in three different laboratories of the CNRS at Marseilles. Despite having started his research career in a department of organic chemistry, essentially all of his research has been related to biochemistry in general and enzymes in particular, including pepsin, mammalian hexokinases, and bacterial enzymes involved in electron transfer. He is thus an enzymologist, with a major interest in kinetics, and has written several books in this area, including Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics (Portland Press, 1995) and Analysis of Enzyme Kinetic Data (Oxford University Press, 1995).

In the past 15 years his interests have been focussed on multi-enzyme systems rather than on the kinetics of single enzymes. This topic includes the regulation of metabolic pathways, and his long-term aim is to develop a modern and coherent theory of metabolic regulation. There has always been a major element of computer analysis in his work, which at different times has involved statistical analysis of data, construction of protein phylogenies, and, most recently, modelling of metabolic systems.



Kirill N. Degtyarenko

Born in Moscow region, Russia in 1967.

In 1989, graduated from the Russian State Medical University, Medico-Biological Faculty (M.D.; M.Sc. in Biochemistry). Since 1986, he worked under guidance of Prof. Valentin Uvarov, first at the Department of Biochemistry, MBF and later at the Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Moscow.

In 1992, he defended his Ph.D. thesis on Molecular Evolution of the P450 Superfamily at the Institute of Biomedical Chemistry (supervisors: Prof. Alexander Archakov and Valentin Uvarov).

He spent one year at the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy, before joining the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the University of Leeds, UK in 1995. Since 1998, Kirill has been working at the European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton (near Cambridge).




Alisdair Fernie

At the Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiology he has worked in the fields of plant biochemistry and plant molecular biology for the last eight years. My major research focus has been understanding the regulation of primary metabolism paying particular interest to carbon metabolism. In recent years this has included both the application of metabolomic techniques to plant systems and the parallel analysis of transcriptional complements in plants and the development of techniques that should facilitate better understanding of spatial and temporal aspects of plant metabolism. The goal now is to utilize these techniques to understand more fully the regulation of, and by, metabolism under a range of environmental and developmental conditions.



Martin G. Hicks

is a member of the board of management of the Beilstein-Institut. He received an honours degree in chemistry from Keele University in 1979. There, he also obtained his PhD in 1983 studying synthetic approaches to pyridotropones under the supervision of Gurnos Jones. He then went to the University of Wuppertal as a postdoctoral fellow, where he carried out research with Walter Thiel on semi-empirical quantum chemical methods. In 1985, he joined the computer department of the Beilstein-Institut where he worked on the Beilstein Database project. His subsequent activities involved the development of cheminformatics tools in the areas of substructure searching and reaction databases, and products such as Current Facts and CrossFire.

After brief sojourns as the managing director of the Beilstein Verlagsgesellschaft in 1997 and subsequently the Beilstein GmbH from 1998 - 2000, he returned home to the Beilstein-Institut as head of the funding department in 2000.

He is particularly interested in furthering interdisciplinary communication between chemistry and neighbouring scientific areas and has been organizing the Beilstein Bozen Workshops since 1988.



Jan-Hendrik Hofmeyr

is Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. He obtained his Ph.D. in 1986 at the University of Stellenbosch after collaborating with Henrik Kacser (one of the founders of metabolic control analysis) and the enzymologist Athel Cornish-Bowden. Jannie and his colleagues Jacky Snoep and Johann Rohwer form the Triple-J Group for Molecular Cell Physiology, a research group that studies the control and regulation of cellular processes using theoretical, computer modelling and experimental approaches.

He has made numerous fundamental contributions to the development of metabolic control analysis and computational cell biology, and with Athel Cornish-Bowden developed both co-response analysis and supply-demand analysis as a basis for understanding metabolic regulation. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Science of South Africa and, with the other Triple-Js, chairs the International Study Group for BioThermoKinetics. He recently won the Harry Oppenheimer Fellowship Award, South Africa's most prestigious science award.



Hermann-Georg Holzhütter

became professor in 1998 and head of the research group "Theoretical Systemsbiology" at the Institute of Biochemistry of the Medical School (Charité) of the Humboldt-University in Berlin. His academic roots extend back to the late 60s/early 70s when he studied Physics at the Humboldt-University. In 1976, he was awarded his Ph.D. for his research on the theory of transport in small gap semiconductors and in 1986 he received his habilitation (Dr. rer. nat. habil.) for theoretical studies on the dynamics and evolution of enzymatic networks. Today, his research topics are enzyme kinetics and the modelling of complex enzymatic networks with an immunological focus.



Carsten Kettner

studied biology at the University of Bonn and obtained his diploma at the University of Göttingen in the group of Prof. Gradmann which had the pioneering and futuristic name - "Molecular Electrobiology".

This group consisted of people carrying out research in electrophysiology and molecular biology in fruitful cooperation. In this mixed environment, he studied transport characteristics of the yeast plasma membrane using patch clamp techniques.

In 1996 he joined the group of Dr. Adam Bertl at the University of Karlsruhe and undertook research on another yeast membrane type. During this period, he successfully narrowed the gap between the biochemical and genetic properties, and the biophysical comprehension of the vacuolar proton-translocating ATP-hydrolase. He was awarded his Ph.D for this work in 1999. As a post-doctoral student he continued both the studies on the biophysical properties of the pump and investigated the kinetics and regulation of the dominant plasma membrane potassium channel (TOK1). In 2000 he moved to the Beilstein-Institut to represent the biological section of the funding department. Here, he is responsible for the organization of symposia (sic!), research (proposals) and funding, as well as development of new projects and products for the Beilstein-Instiut.



Ekaterina Kostina

is a Scientific Assistant at the Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing (IWR) of the Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg. Her present research work concentrates on numerical methods and software for large-scale nonlinear optimization and optimal control problems, including parameter estimation and design of optimal experiments, in application areas like chemical engineering, aerospace engineering, environmental sciences and finance. After graduating with a Diploma degree in Mathematics from the Byelorussian State University (Minsk) Kostina worked as a Research Scientist at the Institute of Mathematics of the Byelorussian Academy of Sciences, where in 1990 she obtained a Ph.D. in mathematics. In 1997 Kostina moved to IWR, and since then she is a member of the Optimization and Simulation Team. Kostina is an author and co-author of 28 refereed papers in journals, conference proceedings, and in books. She is a co-author of a pending patent on the methods for identification of stability parameters of enzymes.



Thomas S. Leyh

received a Ph. D. in biophysics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1983. He joined the faculty at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York in 1989, where he is currently a Professor of Biochemistry. Prof. Leyh is a mechanistic enzymologist with a long-standing interest in sulfur biochemistry, GTPase function, and the conformational coupling of energetics. His group has recently demonstrated that enzymes in the cysteine biosynthetic pathway self-organize into a multifunctional protein complex out of which emerges new catalytic function that orchestrates the activities of the complex. John Andreassi, Ph. D., is a postdoctoral fellow working with Dr. Leyh to initiate the genomic enzymology program.



Hartmut Schlüter



Dietmar Schomburg

1974: Diplom in Chemistry at the Technical University "Carolo-Wilhelmina" in Braunschweig

1976: Dr. rer.nat. in Chemistry (Structural Chemistry of Organo-phosphorus compounds)

1985: Habilitation (Dr. rer.nat.habil.) for Structural Chemistry Scientific Career:

1976 - 1978: Post-Doc in the Chemistry Department at Technical University Braunschweig.

1978 - 1979: Research Fellow at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass., U. S. A. in Professor W.N. Lipscomb's and Professor F.H. Westheimer's groups.

1979 - 1981: Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Chemistry Department at Braunschweig Technical University

1981 - 1983: Assistant Professor (Hochschulassistent), Braunschweig Technical University

1983 - 1986: Head of the x-ray lab at the German Centre for Biotechnology - GBF (Gesellschaft für Biotechnologische Forschung), Braunschweig

1987-1996: Head of the GBF Department of "Molecular Structure Research."

1989-1995: Head of CAPE (Center of Applied Protein Engineering)

1990-1996: (apl.) Professor at the Technical University Braunschweig since 1996: Full Professor of Biochemistry, University of Cologne

Research Interests:

- Protein Structure and Function

- Structural Biochemistry

- Bioinformatics

- Enzyme Information/Metabolic Networks


Stefan Schuster

born 7. November 1961 in Meissen (Germany); studies in biophysics at Humboldt University in Berlin; Dr. sc. nat. (PhD) in 1988;

1988-1991: Assistant at the same university, Dept. of Biology;

1991-93: Postdoc at the University of Bordeaux and the Cancer Institute of the Netherlands in Amsterdam;

1993-97: Lecturer at Humboldt-University in Berlin;

1997-2003: Group leader at the Max Delbrück Centre for Molecular Medicine Berlin-Buch;

1997 and 1998: three-month visits at the universities Maribor (Slovenia) and Stuttgart;

2003: Professor of bioinformatics at the University of Jena.

Main topics of research:

Structural analysis of metabolic and regulatory networks; Metabolic Control Theory; Evolution and optimization of enzyme systems; Modelling of calcium oscillations.



Jacky Snoep

received his PhD in 1992 in the fields of microbial physiology and enzymology working on the control of pyruvate catabolism in bacterial systems. He subsequently worked as a postdoctoral fellow, first specializing in molecular techniques to apply control analysis together with Prof. Ingram at the University of Florida and second together with Prof. Westerhoff at the Netherlands Cancer Institute working on theoretical and modelling aspects of biological systems.

Currently Snoep is appointed in Cellular BioInformatics at the Free University of Amsterdam and in Biochemistry at the University of Stellenbosch. He has successfully applied the multidisciplinary approach of combining theory, computer modelling and experiment to understand biological systems to topics as diverse as DNA supercoiling and metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria. Since 2001 Snoep has been active in setting up a database for kinetic models that can be interactively run and interrogated over the internet at

Keith Tipton

Degrees etc.

B.Sc. (Biochemistry), St Andrews University (1962); M.A. (1965), Ph.D.

(1966); Cambridge University; M.R.I.A. (1984)

Main Posts:

University of Cambridge: Demonstrator & Lecturer (1965-1977). Fellow of

King's College Cambridge (1965-1977).

University of Dublin: Professor of Biochemistry (1997 - present). Fellow of

Trinity College, Dublin (1979- present).

Visiting Professor: Universities of Florence (1976, 1993 & 2003) & Siena (1987 & 1999); Autonomous University of Barcelona (1988-89).


Over 250 papers in refereed journals; 35 papers as chapters in books; editor of 19 books, >150 abstracts; 1 patent, co-author of three books.

Research Interests:

Enzymology: regulation, kinetics, inhibition, isolation, applications and classification. Metabolic analysis and simulation. Neurochemistry: depression, degenerative diseases and 'neuroprotection'. Biochemical Pharmacology: drug design, ethanol.



Hans V. Westerhoff

did his Ph D (in 1983) with Karel van Dam at the University of Amsterdam on the Thermodynamics and Control of Biological Free-Energy Transduction. At this stage it was fairly unique for biochemistry to combine experimentation and modelling in a single set of studies. The 'Control' referred to the application of the Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA) developed by Kacser, Burns, Heinrich & Rapoport, and the 'Thermodynamics' to Mosaic Non Equilibrium Thermodynamics developed by Westerhoff and Van Dam. In hindsight, both these approaches were Systems Biology avant la lettre, in that they aimed at explaining the behavior of biochemical systems in terms of the interactions of their components. Westerhoff then spent 5 years as a visiting scientists at the (US) National Institutes of Health where he worked on stochastic aspects of proton-mediated free-energy transduction, on DNA supercoiling, on membrane active peptides. There he also began to develop hierarchical control analysis (HCA), the extension of MCA that incorporates gene expression and signal transduction. Back in Amsterdam, first as a group leader at the Netherlands Cancer Institute, then as Professor of Mathematical Biochemistry at the University of Amsterdam and as Professor of Microbial Physiology at the Free University in Amsterdam, Westerhoff and coworkers spearheaded a number of experimental and theoretical developments leading from HCA more and more to full blown Systems Biology.

The applications extended to the cascade regulation of ammonia assimilation in E.coli, glucose transport and glycolysis in E. coli and S. cerevisiae, bioenergetics of E. coli and P. denitrificans, multidrug resistance in tumor cells. In the Systems Biology field the work of the Westerhoff group is characterized by explicit links between new theoretical concepts, modelling, and quantitative experimentation, with an emphasis of systems where all three are feasible. Of necessity this has lead to an emphasis on microbial systems.

 In recent years the Systems Biology approach has led the group to 'vertical genomics' related to the production of and by bakers yeast, to network based drug design for the sleeping sickness agent T. brucei, to 'Integrative Bioinformatics' combining information from all levels of functional genomics, and to the 'Silicon Cell', a set of computer replica of parts of living cells ( At present Westerhoff is the scientific director of the Centre for Research of BioComplex Systems and of the Institute for Molecular Cell Biology, both in Amsterdam. He is involved in the German, Finnish and Dutch Systems Biology program committees, and serves as a coordinator of a European umbrella initiative for Systems Biology called ESBIGH.


Rear row, from left to right: J. Barthelmes, K. Degtyarenko, T. Leyh, D. Krömker, J. Zügge, H. Westerhoff,

C. Kettner, D. Schomburg, M. Kanehisa, R. Apweiler, H. Schlüter.

Middle and front row, left to rigth: K. Tipton, J. Snoep, F. Lottspeich, S. Schuster, D. Fell, E. Kostina, M. Poolman, H.-G. Holzhütter, H. Sauro, H. Grammel, P. Mendes, H. Bock, A. Fernie, R. Cammack.

Behind the camera: M. Hicks.

Published in: "Experimental Standard Conditions of Enzyme Characterizations", Martin G. Hicks & Carsten Kettner (Eds.), 
Proceedings of the 1st Int'l Beilstein Symposium, Oct. 5th - 8th, 2003, Ruedesheim, Germany.